Accounts Receivable Process Definition
An accounts receivable process is how you manage the money that customers owe your business for products or services you’ve already provided. It is the process for tracking and collecting your company’s credit sales.
Accounts Receivable Process Steps
Here’s a step-by-step guide to understand and managing accounts receivable collections process effectively:
- Issue Invoice: As soon as you deliver a product or service, send an invoice to your customer. This invoice should detail what the charges are for, the amount due, and when the payment is expected. Make sure the invoice is clear and easy to understand.
- Track Invoice: Keep a close watch on all the invoices you’ve issued. Use a spreadsheet or accounting software to monitor overdue invoices. This tracking helps you know where your money is at any time.
- Communicate with Customers: If an account is nearing its due date or has gone past due, reach out to your customer. A friendly reminder via email or phone can encourage them to make the payment.
- Apply Payments: When you get the receivable, apply them to the corresponding invoice immediately. This action updates your records and helps maintain an accurate view of your finances.
- Manage Overdue Payments: For payments that are significantly overdue, you will need to take additional steps. Consider setting up a payment plan, charging late fees (if your policy allows), or even using a collection agency for extreme cases.
- Analyze AR Reports: Regularly review reports on your AR process. Look for patterns, such as customers who frequently pay late. Use this information to make informed decisions about your credit terms and whether to adjust terms for future sales.
- Maintain Customer Relationship: Even when pursuing overdue payments, it’s important to maintain positive relationships with your customers. The goal is to collect what is owed without damaging future business opportunities.
How to Measure AR Process Effectiveness
To measure the success of your accounts receivable process, focus on a few key metrics that show how effectively you manage customer payment and overall AR management (or accounts receivable management). Understanding these metrics helps you ensure your business maintains healthy cash flow.
- Days Sales Outstanding (DSO): Calculate your days sales outstanding to find out the average number of days it takes for your customers to pay their invoice. A lower DSO means you’re getting paid faster, which is good for your business. To calculate DSO, divide your total accounts receivable during a certain period by your total net credit sales, then multiply by the number of days in the period.
- Aging Schedule: Create an aging schedule to see outstanding invoice. This schedule categorizes unpaid invoices for how long they’ve been due (e.g., 0-30 days, 31-60 days, etc.). It helps you identify which customers are consistently late so you can address the issue to drive timely payment.
- Calculate the Accounts Receivable Turnover Ratio: The accounts receivable turnover ratio shows how often you collect your net accounts receivable in a year. A higher turnover ratio shows that you’re collecting payments more quickly and efficiently. To calculate this ratio, divide your total net credit sales by your collection period.
- Collection Effectiveness Index (CEI): Use the collection effectiveness index to evaluate how well you’re collecting a payment compared to the amount of credit sales made. This index gives you a more comprehensive view of your collection efforts’ effectiveness. To calculate CEI, you compare the beginning receivables plus monthly credit sales minus ending total receivables, then divide by the beginning receivables plus monthly credit sales minus ending current receivables, and finally multiply by 100.
- Percentage of Current Accounts Receivable: Look at the percentage of your accounts receivable that is current (not past due). A higher percentage of current receivables indicates your customers are paying you on time, which is a sign of a healthy AR process.
- Bad Debt to Sales Ratio: Measure the ratio of bad debt (amounts you could not collect and have written off) to your total sales. This ratio helps you understand the impact of non-paying customers on your business. A lower ratio is better, as it shows fewer losses because of non-payment.
- Customer Relationship: While not quantifiable like the other metrics, customer feedback on your billing and collection process is crucial. Efficient, polite, and clear communication can improve customer satisfaction.
AR Process Challenges
Managing your accounts receivable process comes with its share of challenges. These hurdles can affect your business’s cash flow and financial stability if not addressed promptly.
- Late Payment: You’ll encounter customers who pay their invoices late. This delays the cash flow your business relies on to operate. To combat this, establish clear payment terms upfront and send timely reminders as due dates approach.
- Disputed Invoice: Sometimes, customers will not agree with what they’ve been billed for, leading to disputes over invoices. To minimize this, ensure that your invoices are detailed and clear. When disputes happen, address them quickly and professionally to find a resolution.
- Inefficient AR Process: If your AR process relies heavily on manual tasks, it’s prone to errors and inefficiencies. Automate wherever possible using software to track invoices and payments, reducing errors and saving time.
- Poor Communication: Failing to communicate effectively with your customers about their accounts can lead to misunderstandings and missed payments. Develop a consistent communication strategy that includes polite reminders and easy ways for customers to get in touch with questions.
- Inadequate Credit Control: Extending credit to customers without properly assessing their ability to pay can lead to non-payment and financial losses. Implement a thorough credit check process before extending terms to new customers, and regularly review the creditworthiness of existing ones.
- Tracking Receivable Balance: Keeping track of who owes you money, how much, and when it is due can become overwhelming, especially as your business grows. Use an up-to-date accounting system to monitor receivables, and regularly review accounts to catch any issues early.
- Legal and Regulatory Compliance: Navigating the legal and regulatory requirements related to debt collection can be complex. Ensure you understand these rules and comply with them to avoid legal issues and fines.
- Customer Retention: Aggressive collection tactics can harm your relationships with customers. Balance firmness with understanding in your collection efforts to maintain positive relationships and encourage future business.
Accounts Receivable Automation Impact on AR Process
Automating your AR process with an accounts receivable software can significantly affect how you manage payment collection. By incorporating automation tools, you streamline operations, reduce errors, and improve cash flow.
Here’s how automation changes the game for your AR process:
- Speeds Up Invoice Delivery: Automation lets you send invoices immediately after a sale is made or a service is provided. Faster invoicing means faster payment, improving your cash flow.
- Enhances Payment Tracking: Instead of manually checking which invoices are paid, due, or overdue, accounts receivable automation software does this for you in real-time. You get a clear, up-to-date picture of your receivables without digging through spreadsheets or paperwork.
- Reduces Errors: Manual data entry is prone to errors. Automation reduces these mistakes by accurately recording transactions and payments, ensuring your financial data is reliable.
- Improves Efficiency: Automated reminders to customers about upcoming or overdue payments save you the time and effort of chasing payments. This not only makes your process more efficient, but also maintains a professional relationship with your customers.
- Offers Payment Flexibility: Automation often includes online payment options, making it easier for customers to pay their invoices quickly and conveniently. Offering multiple payment methods can significantly shorten payment times.
- Analyzes AR Performance: With automation, you can generate reports that analyze your AR process performance. You can track metrics like days sales outstanding more easily, helping you make informed decisions to improve cash flow forecasting.
- Enhances Customer Experience: Automation provides a smoother transaction experience for your customers. From clear, timely invoices to easy payment options, it shows your commitment to professionalism and efficiency.
- Ensures Compliance: Keeping up with legal and financial regulations is simpler with automation. It can help ensure that your invoicing and collections processes comply with relevant laws, reducing the risk of legal issues.
- Saves Costs: By reducing the need for manual labor in the AR process, you save on labor costs. Faster payments can reduce the need for borrowing or lines of credit to cover cash flow gaps, saving on interest expenses.